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# Roman Numerals Ancient Romans used a special method of showing numbers

Examples: They wrote C instead of 100
And wrote IX instead of 9

Read on to learn about Roman Numerals or go straight to the Roman Numeral Conversion Tool.

## The Roman Symbols

Romans Numerals are based on the following symbols:

1510501005001000
I
V
X
L
C
D
M

## Basic Combinations

Which can be combined like this:

123456789
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
VIII
IX

102030405060708090
X
XX
XXX
XL
L
LX
LXX
LXXX
XC

100200300400500600700800900
C
CC
CCC
CD
D
DC
DCC
DCCC
CM

## Forming Numbers - The Rules

When a symbol appears after a larger (or equal) symbol it is added

• Example: VI = V + I = 5 + 1 = 6
• Example: LXX = L + X + X = 50 + 10 + 10 = 70

But if the symbol appears before a larger symbol it is subtracted

• Example: IV = V − I = 5 − 1 = 4
• Example: IX = X − I = 10 − 1 = 9

To Remember: After Larger is Added

Don't use the same symbol more than three times in a row (but IIII is sometimes used for 4, particularly on clocks)

## How to Convert to Roman Numerals

Break the number into Thousands, Hundreds, Tens and Ones, and write down each in turn.

### Example: Convert 1984 to Roman Numerals. Break 1984 into 1000,900, 80 and 4, then do each conversion

• 1000 = M
• 900 = CM
• 80 = LXXX
• 4 = IV

1000 + 900 + 80 + 4 = 1984, so 1984 = MCMLXXXIV ## How To Remember

Think "MeDiCaL XaVIer".
It has the roman numerals in descending order from 1000 to 1.

I, for one, like Roman numerals!

## Really Big Numbers

Numbers greater than 1,000 are formed by placing a dash over the symbol, meaning "times 1,000", but these are not commonly used:

5,000
10,000
50,000
100,000
500,000
1,000,000
V
X
L
C
D
M

## Conversion Tool

You can convert to/from Roman Numerals here:

numbers/images/roman.js

375, 2034, 2035, 2036, 2037, 2038, 2039, 5113, 5114, 5115